Solved by verified expert :Bob White leaned back and wiped his forehead with his hand. He was the president of the home oven division of Winkley & White, a manufacturer of a full lineof home appliances that included refrigerators, ranges, ovens, dishwashers, disposals, dryers, washers, and range-hoods. The oven division made 24 and 26built-in ovens, both self-cleaning (pyrolytic) and continuous clean (catalytic) models.The ovens were used mainly for home improvement, although a small portion was used in new construction. The Winkley & White oven was regarded as a highquality, premium product and was expensive. Winkley & White ovens were sold to independent distributors, who in turn sold to appliance stores, homeimprovement centers, building and remodeling contractors, and other retail outlets.Although the Winkley & White oven was a premium product and was distributed nationally, it had never achieved the large volume of better known brands such asGeneral Electric, Magic Chef, Caloric, or Amana. As a result, the Winkley & White oven division was only marginally profitable due to its low volume.Last year, in order to increase volume, Winkley & White had entered into OEM1 contracts to manufacture ovens under other brand names. This was commonpractice in the industry, and in fact several of Winkley & White appliances (including gas ranges and disposals) were manufactured by other firms.Under one contract, Winkley & White made ovens for Samantha Stoves, a well-known established brand that was sold by its own distribution division toappliance stores, home improvement centers, building and remodeling contractors, and other retail outlets. Under another contract, Winkley & Whitemanufactured ovens for Mastercraft Stores, which was a mass- market retailer with over a thousand stores throughout the United States. The Samantha andMastercraft ovens were essentially similar to the Winkley & White brand ovens.Bob White was perspiring because he had just finished a phone conference with the top executives of Samantha. The Samantha executives had demanded a 5%price cut. What bothered Bob even more was that if Samantha received a 5% price cut, word would soon leak out, and Mastercraft would soon be demanding aprice cut of 5% too. Within ten minutes, Bob had his three top executives around a conference table and had relayed to them the substance of Samantha’s call.Jack Hewitt, the plant manager, was saying, The Samantha and Mastercraft ovens are basically like our own ovens, but their walls are not as well insulatedor as well sealed at the door opening. The difference in cost is $5 for rockwool insulation and $1 for the door gasket per oven. Labor cost is the same for all threebrands.Under the contracts with Samantha and Mastercraft, their production is scheduled 90 days in advance- which allows our just-in-time inventory system to beimplemented for raw materials. As a result, inventories of raw materials, work in process, and finished goods average about 30 days versus the 100 days ofinventory we normal carry for the Winkley & White brand ovens. Sidney, what are our inventory carrying costs?Sidney Cohen, the division controller, tapped his pencil on the table and cleared his throat. We have carefully studied our inventory carrying costs, and theseadd up to double the interest rate that we pay on our short-term borrowings. We have a line of credit at two points over prime, with a compensating balancerequirement of 20%. Prime rate is presently 8%.Our Selling, General and Administrative expenses are mainly stable year after year, and have not increased since we began making OEM ovens, Sidneycontinued. So, there are definitely manufacturing cost savings on our OEM ovens for Samantha and Mastercraft.Next to speak was Barbara Craig, the division sales manager. Our terms of payment are 10 days from invoice for Samantha and Mastercraft, as compared withthe normal 60 days on accounts receivable that we carry for our own distributors. Also, Winkley & White pays the freight on all truckload orders from ourdistributors. Samantha and Mastercraft pay the freight to ship all of their OEM ovens from here to to their central distribution points in Dallas and Chicago,respectively.Winkley & White provides a three-year warranty on labor and materials for our own brand ovens, but we do not provide warranties or warranty service on theOEM ovens.Bob White said, Each of you has identified possible sources of lower costs on our OEM ovens versus our Winkley & White ovens. The question is whether thesecost savings add up to enough to justify the lower prices that our OEM ovens sell for. If not, we may be in hot water. I seem to recall theres a law, RobertsonPatrick or some such name, on price discrimination. I hope thats not going to cause our distributors to sue us for price discrimination. To avoid a lawsuit we mustprove that our OEM prices are lower than what we charge our own distributors, due to cost savings on OEM sales.Sidney, would you put a report together on this right away. Then lets all get together again this afternoon at four to see how we stand.Sidney replied, So theyre bringing in their lawyer, are they? Well I dont like to be threatened. We can bring in lawyers too. Isnt there some law against tradeconspiracies, Bob? Cant you call our lawyer and see if he can be here for the meeting?Bob called the Winkley & White attorney. He had a previous engagement but agreed with Bob that this appeared to include a Robinson-Patman issue, unlessWinkley and White could prove that its OEM prices were lower than what it charged its own distributors because of cost savings on OEM sales.1OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer, indicating that Winkley & White were the Original Equipment Manufacturer for Samantha and Mastercraft ovens.Assignment: You are Sidneys assistant. He asks you to prepare his report, and to clearly and fully explain your reasoning and your calculations.Exhibit 1 is the Income Statement for the oven division for the recently ended fiscal year.EXHIBIT 1Winkley and White CorporationHome Oven DivisionIncome Statement for the Year Ended December 31 (in $000)________________________________________________________Sales (net)30,538Raw materials6,894Factory wages8,642Factory overhead7,003Cost of goods manufactured22,539Add: Beginning inventories5,079Less: Ending inventories5,985Cost of goods sold21,63321,633Gross profit8,905Less operating expenses:Product warranty service costs1,256Freight out1,321Selling and marketing958Product advertising and promotion432General and administrative1,623Allocated corporate overhead*329Total operating expenses5,9195,919Division income before income taxes2,986*Note: Corporate overhead includes interest expense.Ovens SoldNumberWinkley & White brandSamantha OEM brandMastercraft OEM BrandTotals23,67317,65420,96662,293AverageTotalPrice Sales ($000)$626.00$407.00$407.00$14,819$7,185$8,533$30,537

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